An Introduction to the History of National Socialism
This workshop is specifically designed for those of you who would like to receive a broad introduction into the topic of national socialism. The workshop also serves as a good foundation for the in-depth workshops offered in the second week of the IYM. We will be addressing the Nazis‘ rise to power in 1933 as well as the conceptualization of a national socialist society, the so-called „Volksgemeinschaft.“ Subsequently we will confront the radicalisation of national socialist policy and the consequent occupation of large parts of Europe as well as the Holocaust. In order to delve into the aforementioned topics we will be taking a closer look at developments in the city of Dachau in 1933 and working with materials from the Dachau concentration camp memorial site. Furthermore, participants of the workshop will have the opportunity to talk with two-eye witnesses; Dr. Erwin Küchle and Anastasia Gulei.
Arts and music in the concentration camps
Fine arts and music are both multifaceted, they are hard to define and we find them at various places. Nowadays, especially music seems to be everywhere and an essential feature of our every-day lives. The Dachau concentration camp and present-day memorial site are two places where one will possibly be surprised or even disturbed by finding either of them.
We will look for traces of fine arts and music produced in Dachau and other concentration camps and their medial representation after 1945. Working with biographies, documentaries and a range of materials, we will explore how ambivalent the phenomena of music and arts were in the context of concentration camps: they can be understood as instruments of rule and power used for exploitation and propaganda as well as short moments of opposition to the camp regime. Then, we will have a look at examples of arts and music as means of remembrance after 1945. Finally, we talk to Esther Bejarano, a survivor of Auschwitz who had to play in its camp orchestra, about the meaning of music to her life.
What you should bring with you are the joy in observing, listening, debating and you should be prepared to open your view on arts and music.
Gender and Sexuality in Nazi Germany
In this workshop we will explore the topic of gender and sexuality in the Third Reich, as well as the Weimar period leading up to the Nazi takeover. Parts of the workshop will be dedicated to the position of homosexuality in within National Socialist ideology, and how it was combatted and repressed. Other topics that will be discussed are the practice of prostitution – both male and female – Nazi sexual policy and visions of sexuality, and the division of gender roles and gender education as embodied by youth organisations like the Hitlerjugend and the Bund Deutscher Mädel.
Holocaust in movies
In this workshop we will deal with the topic: how was the Holocaust portrayed in various movies from different countries through years and genres. How cultural background, target groups and intentions of the directors affect the narratives of the movies on the Nazi crimes. We will also be watching some movies with focus on cinematographic means of expression, representations of the Holocaust in the popular cinematographic culture, as well as documentaries. The workshop would be tied up by a reflection on the „postmemory“ and processes of the „romantisation“ of the past war crimes.
Culture of remembrance
The question of how do remember the past and how to deal with history became a very important topic in the last decades, especially in Europe. Remembrance by state, society or different communities as we have it today is the result of a long process, too. We want to talk in our Workshop about the way this process looked like in the last decades and which discussions there are still today. It’s also important for us to discuss with eye-witnesses of different generations about the topic how remembrance in the future could look like. We want to do this by seeing remembrance as motivated and insofar changeable and discuss, also based on theoretical theories we want to gain knowledge about during this workshop, what different perspectives there are and how they influence historical narratives.
Trials on Nazi Crimes
The workshop deals with the issue of a legal penalty for war crimes and crimes against humanity done by Nazi regime during World War II. Millions of victims all around the world, hundreds of thousands cities destroyed and nearly the whole planet at war – all that required certain rehabilitation and ‘revenge’ that was carried out in two ways – the military one (German defeat in May 1945) and the legal one – various Nazi trials, first of all Nuremberg Trials. We will study legal mechanisms and abilities of international law to bring criminals to trial and to dispense justice over them. We will talk about the problem of absence of many international laws at that time and their appearance after Nazi trials. The importance of that problem can be observed through the fact that the system of international law we currently have was mostly developed after and because of Nazi crimes. We will also reveal the attitude of victors towards the necessity of trials and their format in context of geopolitics and relationships between Eastern and Western allies. We will talk about special features of legal process within the trials and its inconsistency.
Education during National Socialism
This interactive and varied workshop explores the daily life of education under the Nazi regime. Joining this workshop means that you will leave the IYMD with knowledge of not only the educational system in Nazi Germany and it’s changes, but you will also have had the opportunity to talk with a Munich native eyewitness who will tell you his story about being denied entry to schools and being deported to a concentration camp.
Additionally we will also discuss methods of teaching and the consequences that come with them and in the end you will be able to look at your own education with a critical view. Because after all; all education is objective, right?
Displaced Persons Camps
In May 1945 the Holocaust ended with the Allied Liberation, but for thousands of survivors their arduous journey did not end immediately. During their persecution by the Nazis many of those lost their homes and most or all of their family members. In addition, many couldn’t return to their home countries immediately or at all, which is why Displaced Persons camps, or DP camps, were installed in military barracks, residential buildings and even former concentration camps. Utilizing testimony of eye-witnesses and Survivors we aim to gain a deeper understanding of what life was like in the DP camps, how Survivors started to plan their new lives and how they dealt with the trauma experienced during the Second World War.
Sinti and roma as victims of national-socialism
In our workshop we want to talk about Sinti and Roma as victims of national-socialsm in Germany. Our aims are to show the history of the persecution of Sinti and Roma and the continuities of discrimination against Sinti and Roma until today. We also want to talk from a critical perspective about the way Sinti and Roma are often described as a homogeneous (ethnic?) group by society. One (important) point in our Workshop will also be the talk to eye-witnesses. With them we will also talk about the long struggle Sinti and Roma had in their fight for recognition as victims of the crimes committed by nazi-germany.
“I wonder that you might breathe this air“ – Jewish life in Germany after 1945
This remark, passed by the Jewish scholar Gershom Scholem living in Israel to his conservative Jewish colleague Hans-Joachim Schoeps, who returned to Germany after his exile in Sweden in 1946, reveals not only amazement, but also incomprehension for the notion of Jewish life in the land of perpetrators.
Indeed, after the war, few people would have imagined that fifty years later, there would once again be a thriving Jewish LIFE in Germany and Jews from all over the world would choose the former homeland of National Socialism as a place to come to and inhabit. In this workshop we will learn about, reflect on and question the complex relationship between Germany and the Jews within its midst. Instead of creating a homogenous picture of ‘Jewishness’ in a German context we try to get an understanding of commonalities as well as contraries within different stories and circumstances, depending on the background of one individual or community. We are looking forward to an eye-witness talk with Abba Naor, a visit in the Jewish Museum in Munich and – most of all – to commonly share our (your!) knowledge, mindful thoughts, inspiring approaches as well as ideas for the future and to have a good time together!
Psychology of power
Participants in this workshop will tackle the question of how the perception of power and authority can influence individual decision. If an authority gives an order which is then executed by a subordinate, who should assume responsibility? How does perceived power affect the dynamics of that situation?
To understand the basis of these questions and to tackle them, we will look to the field of psychology and some of its classical experiments. We will discuss whether these experiments and their results can at all help us understand how some of the Nazi atrocities could possibly happen.
The aim of the workshop is at least twofold. One is to broaden the knowledge of the participants regarding the events of war and occupation in Poland as well as experienced by the Polish citizens. The other is to enhance their ability to critically think of the history and to overcome historical stereotypes – basing on the ones imposed on Poland & Poles and the stereotypes cultivated in Poland.
The following steps of the workshop would be: introduction to the history of the war in Poland in 1939 and the range of experiences of the Polish people within the occupations by the Third Reich and the Soviet Union, as well as in other places. Discovering the highlights of the Polish war history as well as the grim events and the scale of grey of the everyday life in occupied Poland. Learning about the stories of Polish individuals in the times of war and occupation. In the summing up – trying to reflect on the story of Poland in WW2 in terms of „marginalization“ beyond Poland and „instrumentation“ within the country. The final outcome would aim at going beyond the stereotypes in thinking of the history.“